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Basic knowledge of piano and playing methods.

Basic knowledge of piano and playing methods.



In music art, the piano has an irreplaceable position. In 1709, the first appearance of the piano after about three hundred years of history, during this period, many changes have taken place in the piano, the timbre bright beautiful, moving, is good at playing all kinds of styles of music, its performance style also has become increasingly rich and perfect, now, let's learn together to play the piano.



1. Familiar with the piano profile: a combination of two lines of simplified spectra.



Keyboard and note: remember the position of the seven notes in the center.



Finger symbol: the finger is marked with the Chinese character of one, two, three, four, five.



4. The sitting position and the state of the hand when playing the piano:



1: posture 2: the state of the hand when playing.



Practice fingering is key, and you can practice fingering by repeatedly playing the following music:



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Piano playing.



1. Basic practice of piano.



(1) the basic practice of piano is to practice slowly.



Slow practice, like "big mirror", enlarges all the details of the music. The biggest advantage of slow training is that it can adjust and correct defects and faults according to visual, auditory feedback information. One way to slow down is to use metronomes. Even after the work is mature, you should not neglect the appropriate slow practice.



(2) planned and purposeful learning:



Rome wasn't built in a day. It takes persistence to practice the piano. The piano repertoire is varied and the playing techniques are varied. Beginners should develop a long-term learning goal and a recent learning plan, starting from the foundation, learning gradually and gradually.



(3) learning piano with good attitude:



In the process of learning the piano, there may be a case of emotional ups and downs. Should adjust the mood, appropriately reduce the learning difficulty, fully stimulate the interest of learning piano, alleviate the tension of learning piano.



2. The use of natural weight in piano playing.



About the use of natural weight requirement is that the whole arm relaxed freely, hang from shoulder stretch, to coordinate the entire arm drooping, by relaxing the flexible wrist adjustment, and then by the keyboard fingers into the arm weight.



(1) realize the natural weight of the arm.



Sit in a sitting position with your arms fully relaxed. At this point, the arm appears to be a natural object hanging from the shoulder. Swing freely in the air, slosh, and blood rushes to the palm of your hand to your fingertips. After experiencing the natural weight of the arm, we need to use this natural weight to play the piano. Then the finger will play its function and function.



(2) the finger should bear and support the weight of the whole arm.



The three small joints of the fingers are slightly raised, especially in the palm of the hand, which must be supported as a strength. The natural weight of the arm falls, requiring every finger to hold. Let's practice with a staccato approach: one finger on the piano, one finger on the piano, and the natural weight of the arm. After a period of time, after each finger can be free to pop up the full voice, then gradually enter the practice of playing. Further we can adjust the weight of the weight.



3. Coordination of the body when playing the piano.



Physical coordination is involved.



The basic sitting position and position of piano playing begin to be clear, as the program deepens, it needs to develop and better use.



(1) to ensure the basic coordination of the body:



To ensure the coordination of the body is to adjust the proper sitting position according to the body condition. With the improvement of degree, more and more demands have been made on the changes of intensity, speed and music emotion and color, so the participation and regulation of the body is becoming more and more important.



(2) basic requirements of sitting position:



The buttocks should be stable and fixed in the middle of the piano stool, for the convenience of flexibility, do not sit full, sit half can. And in order to take care of the high bass, sit in the middle of the piano, do not move at will, and two legs on both sides of the pedal, in the strong play, the left leg can be withdrawn as a full-body power fulcrum. This is the basic requirement of sitting position.



(3) left and right adjustment of the body:



The left and right sides of the body adjust mainly according to the pitch. In the case of the scale, in the weak bass region, the center of gravity is placed on the left leg; When playing the middle tone, the center of gravity is balanced on both sides; When you hit a high note, the center of gravity is on the right leg.



(4) front and rear adjustment of the body:



The back and forth of the body can be determined according to the volume and strength of the volume.



4. Ability and training of fingers.



(1) finger ability:



Finger ability refers to the ability of each finger to have independent activity, whether it is flexible and powerful. Performance on the playing is clarity, uniformity and fluency.



5. Key in piano playing:



(1) power touch.



The tendon attached to the forearm muscles pulls the finger down and completes the action of the lower key. When the tendon is loose, the fingers and keys revert to their original position.



Practice: put your right hand in a normal position, with the back of your hand and the back of your wrist almost on the same level. Your fingers are on the keyboard, and you're in the position of C to g. The wrists are always relaxed in the lifting and lowering of the movements, the fingers are always pressed and the fingers are firm and slightly bent.



Example 1: staccato: each play a note, the finger presses the key quickly, and at the moment of the sound release, retract to the key. The wrist is always smooth.



Example 2: legato: like staccato, every sound should be kept up. The pressure on the finger just stops the keys from bouncing back. The forearm moves slightly to the right as the next one goes down. This way, when one key is released, another key makes a sound.



(2) hand touch:



The main feature of the hand touch is the movement of the hand. Use the most widely in all kinds of touch keys. The upward bounce of the wrist becomes an unalterable sign of the hand touch.



Practice: the right hand is placed on the keyboard position shown in the shop example. Relax your wrists and stabilize your fingers. The thumb is about a quarter of an inch above the keyboard, and the hand is pressed against the c-note, forcing the thumb to hit the keys. At this point the wrist will immediately arch up 1 inch high, then immediately relax, return to the original position. The effect of the staccato is formed. Both hands can be practiced in this way. The upward movement of the wrist should be emphasized in each key action. You can do the same exercises in the same way, but turn your hand slightly in the direction of the lower one, and return to the original position as soon as the wrist is up. Relax your wrists and fingers.



Stability is the most difficult requirement to achieve in touch. Finger touch has a wide range of USES, such as playing a variety of scales, arpeggios, and other complex sound segments. It's also used in strings and octaves.



(3) : arm drop contact.



The arm drop is a sudden drop of the forearm or the whole arm so that the key or the key that is to be played is pushed down in this falling motion. The final position is shown in figure B, with hands and arms hanging from the keyboard. The arm drop touch can pop up the staccato effect, as long as the finger is relaxed immediately after the sound is emitted. The arm drop touch is best used for the retention or legalization of the sound.



Practice: raise your wrists so that your fingertips are almost glued to the keyboard. Then suddenly relax your arms. As the arm falls, you can hear the sound you want to play. The fingers hold the sound, and the wrist is lower than the keyboard. Then go back to the high wrist position to play the next note, and the wrist is relaxed throughout the exercise. The combination of hand and arm contact is very important in the expression of the two kinds of touch. In the case of the two-tone audio group with the attachment, the first sound of the forearm touch key pops up, laying a foundation, and then the second sound will pop up according to the degree of light or staccato degree required by the touch of the hand. The first sound of each group is dropped by the touch of the arm (D= lower wrist), and the second is played by the touch of the hand (U= elevating the wrist). With attachment's right-hand man separate panels may be used separately by the two contact key methods to practice, for light scales with the attachment, you can arm fall touch key to play the first sound, let the wrist gradually raise (hand touch key). The wrist is suspended in midair when the last sound is played. Various scales and left - handed exercises.



Note: the thumb is always touched with the arm. The rest of the fingers, apart from playing the beginning of the scale (whether ascending or descending), are used with the touch of the hand. The two types of touch are used alternately in octave, with the touch of the hand on the black key, while the white key, which follows the black key, touches the key with the arm.



The chromatic octave is particularly indicative of these principles:



(4) full arm contact.



6. Scale exercise



Scale practice is an important basic training for beginners. To practice the scale, you need to pay attention to several aspects:



(1). The importance of practicing scales: it is important to practice scales, on the one hand, to improve the ability of controlling and using the fingers, and the other is to be familiar with fingering and consolidate the memory. Third, can be familiar with keyboard location, familiar with debugging and conversion, improve performance.



(2) set a clear goal: to practice the scale, first of all, to solve a "stand" word, to solve the five fingers and to hold the joint, only to practice hard to achieve the goal. Second, learn a "slow" word. Only slowly, can gradually strengthen strength, increase endurance, and for future acceleration lay the foundation.



(3). To prevent A "mixed" word: A major, # f, g, C minor, the relationship between several sets of large, confusing, fingering is wrong, only after repeated practice, practice to the accurate.



(4) : take group practice method: studied the scale can be divided into four groups, each time practicing playing first two set of scales, play music, then playing scales, / *, each group of the slow practice five times, fast practice time, gradually increase the number, to adjust



The motivation of playing the piano.



How to practice a piece of music?



In the course of practice, it can be divided into three stages. Visual spectrum, practice, combination.



(1) visual spectrum phase:



When you learn a new tune, you should first take 1 to 2 minutes to read the music, remember the tune, beat, beat, etc., and then start using the habit of hand play. One of the main factors of fast learning is the ability of visual spectrum.



(2) training stage:



After being able to play the music accurately, then you have to practice in sentences, sections and breaking up. Be specific, segmented or break up.



(3) combination stage:



The third stage requires thinking ability and expression ability. When the notes, the beat, the fingering, and the sentence are solved, the choice of the sound and touch keys, the level of strength, the flexibility of the rhythm, the structure of music, etc.



8. Facial expression when playing piano:



(1) the sound part:



Like an organ, the piano has to play several parts at the same time and often simulate the effect of the whole band. Therefore, in order to make a piano music play well in the performance, it should make the various parts of the sound to form a certain position relation in the whole. Therefore, players should be good at random use of various touch keys.



A: the part of the sound level in music.



The combination and contrast of these parts should be based on the specific music. Any special subject material should be the main part. Take, for example, the fragment of Bach's three parts.



The main theme of the low voice here is the most important. And the middle part of the problem (2) and the competition appears, the short sound (3) that flashes in the top of the voice (3) should be in the position of the foil.



B: the sound level in harmonic music.



The simplest form is the melody or passing sentence supported by a chord. There are three different levels: the main melody, the bass, and the chords that are inserted. Usually at these three levels you can add the fourth level of the melody. A clip from Chopin's ornate waltz:



In this case, the continuous a-tone of the high voice should be played with the full arm touch, the bass with the arm of the arm, and the flow of the melody and the accompaniment chord with the touch of the hand.



The whole of these four levels is present in the combination of various melodies and harmonies. For example, in schumann's "the romantic song", the duet of the melody is played by the thumb of both hands. The accompaniment of the left and right hands touch the key through the finger or the hand, and the soft tone can be obtained. And liszt's the dream of love. Four of them have distinct layers. When playing, all four touch keys must be used: the main melody USES the whole arm to touch the key; The counterpoint of the bass is touched with the arm; A high-pitched chord with the touch of the hand; To break down a chord by means of a force touch.



(2) pulsation in music.



A: the beat



Music vitality is first of all the repeated pulsation, also called the beat. Music's character is also determined by the stress, regularity and speed of music pulsation reflected by the performer. The combination of the beat is the smallest unit of measure. Its basic structure is no more than double beat or triple meter. It should be strictly divided into subsection units and real musical units. The length of the former is the distance between two bar lines; The latter is the length of a certain point.



Go to the corresponding point in the next section. Chopin's "prelude", for example: here every phrase section on the strength of the pulse obviously contain a "from" a "v", so the beat in order is: weak strength, strength is strong, and so on.



B: stress



Stress is generally divided into two categories:



A: forceful or powerful stress.



The players only need to play a little bit more than the following tone on the stressed note, which is always used to represent the vibrant music image. For example, Chopin's "army poloniz" requires a strong, forceful accent on the first beat of each bar.



B: a delay or a time stress.



A note can be highlighted by extending the time value. This accent is used in all musical compositions.



(3) phrases and their combination:



Usually, a musical sentence contains only one type of sound. When the sound is connected to the next section, it becomes a complete motive. As an example of Chopin's "prelude", the two types of sound form a two-bar motive:



In a more complex piece of music, the composer usually breaks the monotony of the absolute equilibrium by expanding the phrase or reducing the phrase. Take the beginning of the second movement of schubert's sonata:



These two phrases are irregular phrases. Because each phrase is only three and a half measures long, rather than the usual four bars. But the first phrase omitted only three unimportant primes, while the second was prematurely deleted from music.



(4) irregular stress.



One of the important ways to make the play rich is to use a special accent to conflict with the rules in the bar. In the case of moshkovsky's "mazurka", the first beat is a delayed accent, which forms the basic rhythm of the whole song. In the third, a strong accent is added to form a strong contrast.



A: irregular rhythm.



It is assumed that the rhythm of the rule is that the time value of the strong beat is as long or longer as the time value of the weak beat, so obviously the longer sound appears in the weak beat position, and the rule is broken. Take, for example, the polish dance of scherwinka:



In order to better reflect the characteristics of the dance music, in the first two sections, this anti-conventional accent appears on the second beat, which appears on the third beat in the last two sections.



In the music rhythm is strong, this kind of long normally need to use sharp accent played, and in the lyrical music, should be subtle detail processing, because fermata stress itself value can produce the effect of the stress. Like shubert's "improvisation", the first beat of the first beat is more pronounced than the first.